The 19th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, featuring also the 6th International Atomic Layer Etching Workshop, is about to start. It will kick-off today (Sunday July 22) with a tutorial session and the welcome reception. I feel extremely honored as I have been awarded the ALD Innovator Award this year. I highly appreciate this recognition of our work over the years which has been a real team effort of course. I’m very grateful for all the good and hard work done by my students and postdocs over the years we have been working on ALD (for me it started with the 2nd ALD conference in Seoul in 2002) as well as the other principal investigators, technical and support staff of the Plasma & Materials Processing group at the Eindhoven University of Technology. For me it is hard to express in words how happy I am with what this team has achieved. I also want to say a big thank you for all those people outside the research group with whom I have collaborated and/or pleasantly interacted. It all has helped me to accomplish several goals I’ve been dreaming of. Thank you so much!
But now about the plenary presentation I will be given on Monday morning to kick off the first day of the technical program. I have chosen “Atomic Scale Processing: from Understanding to Innovation” as a title. With this title I want to indicate that I will not only be talking about ALD. I will also cover atomic layer etching (ALE) and reach out to my ALE friends in audience (see some figures about ALD and ALE below). Furthermore, I want to point out (again!) that we are at the dawn of the atomic scale processing (see my earlier post about that) which goes much further than only ALD. Personally I think that both ALD and ALE will be two key technologies – among probably many more – that will be extremely important for the manufacturing of future devices. Think of the Internet-of-Things, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, quantum computing, etc. This is also why the research scope of our Plasma & Materials Processing group is shifting beyond only ALD, even beyond only ALD and ALE. The research scope is shifting to “Atomic Scale Processing”.
Schematic illustration of the atomic layer-by-atomic layer growth and atomic layer-by-atomic layer etch as achieved by ALD and ALE, respectively.
Schematic representation of one complete, generalized cycle of (a) atomic layer etching (ALE) and (b) atomic layer deposition (ALD). In (c), the so-called saturation curves for the various steps in the ALE and ALD processes are schematically illustrated (after Fig. 3 in the publication by Faraz et al., ECS J. Solid State Sci. and Technol., 4 (6) N5023 (2015))
Schematic illustration of the key features for (a) atomic layer etching (ALE) and (b) atomic layer deposition (ALD). Note the similarities and differences between ALD and ALE (after Fig. 4 in the publication by Faraz et al., ECS J. Solid State Sci. and Technol., 4 (6) N5023 (2015))
With the subtitle I try to indicate that I like to contribute to innovation and to do research which has finally real impact. In all modesty, I think I can say that we have contributed to quite some technical innovations in our field. These range from new and improved plasma ALD tools to new applications of ALD such as, for example, silicon solar cells. However, for all the innovations we have contributed to, it was important or otherwise extremely helpful to have a very good understanding of what is happening during ALD film growth on the atomic level etc.
During my presentation, I will cover several topics that I think are worth it spending a few minutes on each. They concern topics that have kept me busy over the recent years. As a matter of fact, they are still keeping me busy a lot. I will list these topics below and they can be considered a kind of main messages that I want people to take away from my presentation. I’m planning to elaborate on each of these “messages” later in separate blog posts.
Topics to be discussed during my plenary presentation and main messages to take away:
- ALD status report: strong, healthy & growing
- ALD is big in photovoltaics
- Plasma ALD has become mainstream
- Plasma ALD can be very conformal
- Ion bombardment yields opportunities for ALD
- Area-selective deposition is trending
- ALD fundamentals: need for quantitative data
- Atomic layer etching is becoming vital
Finally I want to point out that we will be having many more presentations given by members from our group. Below is a list. I hope to see you at #ALDALE2019, let’s chat and hang out! And please enjoy the conference!
|Sunday||3:40pm||TUTORIAL: ALD for Photovoltaics, Bart Macco, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands|
|Monday||8:45am||INVITED: PS1-MoM2 Atomic Scale Processing: From Understanding to Innovation, Erwin Kessels, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands|
|Monday||4:15am||AF3-MoA12 Advanced Lateral High Aspect Ratio Test Structures for Conformality Characterization by Optical Microscopy, Oili Ylivaara, P. Hyttinen, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland; K. Arts, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; F. Gao, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland; W.M.M. Kessels, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; R. Puurunen, Aalto University, Finland; M. Utriainen, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland|
|Tuesday||8:30am||AA1-TuM3 Plasma-Assisted ALD of Cobalt Phosphate: Process Development and Electro-Catalytic Activity Towards Oxygen Evolution Reaction, V. Di Palma, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; G. Zafeiropoulos, R. van de Sanden, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research; W.M.M. Kessels, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; M. Tsampas, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research; Mariadriana Creatore, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands|
|Tuesday||9:00am||AF1-TuM5 Infrared and Optical Emission Spectroscopy on Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Spatial ALD of Al2O3, Maria Antonietta Mione, R. Engeln, W.M.M. Kessels, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; F. Roozeboom, Eindhoven University of Technology and TNO, Netherlands|
|Tuesday||1:45pm||AF-TuA2 Radical Surface Recombination Probabilities during Plasma ALD of SiO2, TiO2 and Al2O3 Determined from Film Conformality, Karsten Arts, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; M. Utriainen, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland; R. Puurunen, Aalto University, Finland; W.M.M. Kessels, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; H. Knoops, Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, UK|
|Tuesday||2:30pm||AS1-TuA5 Area-Selective ALD of Silicon Oxide using Inhibitors in Four-step Cycles for Metal/Dielectric Selectivity, Marc Merkx, R. Jongen, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; A. Mameli, TNO/Holst Center, Netherlands; D. Hausmann, Lam Research Corp.; W.M.M. Kessels, A.J.M. Mackus, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands|
|Tuesday||4:00pm||AS2-TuA111 Area-Selective Deposition and Smoothing of Ru by Combining Atomic Layer Deposition and Selective Etching, Martijn Vos, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; S. Chopra, University of Texas at Austin; M. Verheijen, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; J. Ekerdt, University of Texas at Austin; S. Agarwal, Colorado School of Mines; W.M.M. Kessels, A.J.M. Mackus, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands|
|Wednesday||2:00pm||INVITED: NS-WeA3 Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: From 2D Monolayers to 3D Vertical Nanofins, Ageeth Bol, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands|
|Wednesday||2.45pm||NS-WeA6 Low Temperature ALD for Phase-controlled Synthesis of 2D Transition Metal (M=Ti, Nb) di- (MX2) and Tri- (MX3) Sulfides, Saravana Balaji Basuvalingam, M. Verheijen, W.M.M. Kessels, A. Bol, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands|